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• Research suggests that group discussion can cause participant attitudes to become more extreme, which could in turn result in greater unification of group opinions or polarize participants. 0000011354 00000 n <]/Prev 166634>> trailer <]/Prev 1262681>> startxref 0 %%EOF 405 0 obj <>stream 0000012976 00000 n 0000032459 00000 n Certainly, such groups can provide you with information about people’s opinions and feelings concerning the ... rizing focus group information in a numerical form and making predictions on the basis of those numerical summaries is not appropriate. It is used to learn more about opinions on a designated topic, and then to guide future action. 0000012871 00000 n 0000003034 00000 n 13 | updated August 2018 This brief is about focus groups as a data collection method for evaluation. 2. Focus group discussions are facilitated discussions, held with a small group of people who have specialist knowledge or interest in a particular topic. 0000005152 00000 n =B6hf@b�Z�3������(���eA����Э0�,_��v)XQCC�Y�W�_{��e2�@B `I�6!�(4 n��r��J?�f��X��[�rp1��|�@���*v�yùC�c% ��.�M�"�q�B��x"�@x� '5k"hq��H��.g��!��`��+pF��R ���$[@t8��'�� 0000043684 00000 n A focus group discussion involves gathering people from similar backgrounds or experiences together to discuss a specific topic of interest. 47 0 obj <> endobj 358 48 0000013994 00000 n 0000031882 00000 n �L\K���7 Y?iWk)f`�{��C\Ar�܁�i|L,�w�op(�C]����H3�_� �� Selection of participants varies a great deal. The findings from these focus groups were stark. 0000031360 00000 n 0000044792 00000 n 0000001256 00000 n They are used to find out the perceptions and attitudes of a defined group of people. trailer Focus groups are a way to discover demographic-relevant information through an interactive group sessions that is run by a facilitator. It is a form of qualitative research where questions are asked about their perceptions attitudes, beliefs, opinion or ideas. ���P�.e���� V�(��_K����i��&`#���_����h��^B��g�e��+n��zL��D%��D� �>C�nj6K-���#���=2�j#�k���S�i!��F�8���F��bq`>��~#�ÓҠ"�2���=�A�Tr���0:�i���09V�� PA���0Ӷs��� ז�7�je��\�Cs-��M*��9?Q-\;�{R��y��f5�(�\H�ŭ�K�>��b�Z���w��#�EKj���f�A����g���_d=��?�q�6�,)�7"�F�У��;���D����O����k�bX Any longer and the sessions become inefficient and the participant’s time needs to be considered. The FGDs were held separately for female and male refugees in three distinct population groups: adolescents (13-17 years 0000003719 00000 n H��VK��6��W���Z>E�ڦ)�SZ�!����^5�앬��;䐲�Z�7��)>���M����V�RV�ε �y��`2����7������p�ߠkPJ�"̀�?�[ F�F:��Lk���n�,�G�0*0��6�raSU�z$��P��C_��(Cs�!�J�)�����s����� 0000001578 00000 n Studies may base decisions on age group, gender, regional background or any other demographic marker. focusedon a particular discussion topic. 0000008793 00000 n Through the focus group discussions, you will discover information that will help you identify steps you can take to improve college practices that affect student success. In this case, the idea is to use a small number of exploratory groups, in an initial stage of the research, to guide the construction of the topics of the interview. 0000044867 00000 n 0000011315 00000 n q�l�4�(s]�c)���^V �lo��Jk'���L�����iy This is because there is no designated leader in the group and the discussions are made natural. 0000001778 00000 n 0000007696 00000 n 0000199118 00000 n Some of the focus groups advantages are as follows: 1. I�{����=�=�wιs f�) D ,f, *���h�Z D����� ����:Y'>�wI���G��Qi\?��q��,5�{��ɣ�����b�-Z���7�����0;���O,G�&Fn#������~�͐�Ƶ%�u5gN��6��9�e�n�i��O.�&�@��w��d/oV3�]�i1b�ֺr�wSU�u�ǝ�aqmٞ y�-Q�xNӼ{b�|��h�#�5ݽ�n��^m�U��k��i᠂�`����sa��9��)�����#�3�_��L��={�v�0~@���J'�}Jd�@��pF�s 9@!�gG��ezx����D� � ���~���Ao�g����rJ\��x,������=����&�����B��N���O�rں�3>�5�4���*� ��b��{t�²��M�1q�lPa�x1zjS)�?�FHt���9%B��U�{_�B,�2�.��H)vo͏\.u�ߚ���(�$U;%`���3���~=�!��c$���yO��]{?_��"ø���ٲ8?,G�;�=��z���as`�� �b��+Wq(��Av�F����fPY��"�nOA%+�( ��4����[1ٱ?Fʊ��vwOeՓ"v�;� �J��*%�e���΄�ˊɚdH�&�#Q�� � ׋C6[��h+������6��pX��B��&���W�j0��ـ��ck��'������p,��r��M��,�3�H̊q�����$�VE�r�A����霺�z���+��sk�T�%���E9�p������di�4��2�M�T�8P8��HsK�ީ���ϫ��T�Kŀ��V�R��˒�G1������wѪ�"�l��F[j��}�%d�b����+�׼��e# �G�J��W#턑.z��P�n�H�$�C q&�-. 0000005625 00000 n Focus groups should be conducted using focused, predetermined open-ended questions that will lead to a robust, continuous discussion. Survey instruments tend to be viewed as scientific, particularly when they produce quantitative data, and so may be overused by those who lack confidence in other market research strategies. The materials that you will need for focus groups are: 0000044761 00000 n 0000014511 00000 n 0000081827 00000 n 0000044611 00000 n 0000018869 00000 n You will need around 10 volunteers to help facilitate the focus group. Each group included between 6 and 12 people. Focus Groups Report: Survivor Solutions to Program and Systems Change - 4 - o Increase the number of women moving into permanent housing in Los Angeles o Create a model for replication and scale for dissemination across the U.S. DVHSC conducted 12 county-wide focus groups in 2017. The standard length of time for a focus group is anywhere from 45 to 90 minutes. 0000001096 00000 n 0000014015 00000 n Focus group methods permit alternative ways of obtaining information from consumers without using a survey. ��IҎwd%f���8��i�lm-jU�-X�N`�wc�jc 0000028711 00000 n Evaluation: Focus Groups No. focus group discussions are ideally suited to obtaining relevant data on the meaning, identities and contexts associated with sexual behaviour among young people. 1. The discussions are kept under control: The discussions in the focus groups can be kept under control. Fifteen focus group discussions (FDG) were conducted with 145 refugees to explore their views, including ten FGDs held in Mussungue reception centre on 23-24 June 2017 and five FDGs in Cacanda reception centre on 8 July 2017. 0000013363 00000 n Be sure thank participants for attending and helping with this important project and reaffirm the topic of discussion - our Code of Business Conduct & Ethics. 0000032261 00000 n 0000015822 00000 n DISCUSSIONS. h޴UiPSW�/ %,Y���JXd$�,Nq��E��d �:���j �OR! It can impact focus group discussion if the facilitator is anxious because materials are missing or purchased at the last minute. 0000025416 00000 n 0000002209 00000 n ��̂D�Ux,����G;کܡA�"Z���Sw2ݡ���N�ى����>n��Puvi��hUɚ Your ability to make everyone comfortable, encourage everyone to speak up, enforce a respectful tone, and manage the pace will determine the quality of the discussion and therefore, the information you gather. 0000072937 00000 n 0000031451 00000 n \:�G���p������7�Ovp|�\�UX�)&4�(J܁�f�z'Lhڙ�FD�l�ڒ;�y,�.I�A��#/{^�.~�b>Z���u>��*u"�C} Z�+� ��i�:�����9�jk����~UX[j���,!�|. If the facilitator is anxious, this may make the participants uncomfortable and limit discussion. 0000003523 00000 n 3.1 Focus group and the individual interview Focus Group can contribute to a project built around the Individual Interview, especially in the planning phase of the interview route. Focus group discussion is widely used in conservation research unlike some of the other relatively lesser known techniques such as Nominal Group Technique (Hugé & Mukherjee, in prep) and Q meth-odology (Zabala & Mukherjee, 2017). Conducting the focus group Ideally, the focus group is conducted by a team consisting of a moderator and assistant moderator. Questions are open-ended, with the aim of stimulating an informal discussion with participants FOCUS GROUP . H��Wˎ7��W��Wo�׬_b F�lL�l�Y'��H�(u��k ��L״D��"��p�!��m��èi>�=�ޟ>��_�ß��淟�z���ߧק�_.o�o�x���?������~x�N?���k쓸��C�}�}�4��[�s�����?����>[�!|:��s���!${�Oi[O5�.u+CF8?���]��fCS P�TS w ���]�T׫�i��^uGnp��AT�Y3�ꦣ�ъ&:�������(GEP 47 40 0000011951 00000 n ( 1998 ) and Litosseliti ( 2004 ), the facilitator must have a set of skills and techniques to ensure that the issues under discussion are addressed comprehensively. Focus Group Discussion Guide Sample I. 0000003684 00000 n The focus group takes approximately 2 hours to complete. A focus group discussion is a qualitative data collection method that engages 6 to 12 people—with shared characteristics pertinent to the specific discussion topic—and is led by a trained facilitator. 0000000016 00000 n Guidelines for setting up and designing focus-group studies are outlined, ethical issues are highlighted, the purpose of a pilot study is reviewed, and common focus-group analysis and reporting styles are outlined. Focus group discussions lead to valuable output. The dynamics of the focus group can have a hugely positive influence on the quality of the research output. 0000057412 00000 n 0000044686 00000 n 0000012428 00000 n 0000052507 00000 n How the focus group discussions were conducted 3. community norms) When interviewees are unique or 0000198796 00000 n 0000059423 00000 n In this core module suggested topics to be covered in interviews and group discussions with young people regarding sexual behaviour, dating patterns and risk perceptions are outlined. 0$�=7�氂��F �8������� �gA-*��g+R#T��{�B�5��T��R��/5��5+�q�q�)��v����Hf�h�x�r���q��v�i��4�L��.�q~)�!�����-VK0I��B����!�ΐ���,+�mg�@.Et�$����I� ���J�r��%��4�2��~_ =l��p�M��o�-l�fS�Ӿ�j�� msl�~!Ë"EaFf����?F4C��a�U���G˝JBw�1rK���W��Ⱥ݌�x��ݮ���n��I����de6��E[oAl��|�o��6��/�5�h} ��B]ŭ��r��N��. The ideas and the opinions flow freely without any rules and the regulations to follow. No matter the selection process, however, the aim of focus groups is to find a consensus. 0000198416 00000 n 0000004442 00000 n sensitive topics) When interaction among interviewees will yield the best info (ex. Focus groups offer a way of systematically acquiring qualitative data on specific topics. 0000072820 00000 n xref 0000002851 00000 n 0000002998 00000 n 0000008254 00000 n FGDs are a predetermined semi-structured interview led by a skilled moderator. 0000032377 00000 n 0000032206 00000 n A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a method for collecting qualitative data that gathers community individuals together to discuss a specific topic. 0000031807 00000 n 0000003637 00000 n Focus group Interview Focus Group Complex subject matter and knowledgeable respondents, Promote discussion between participants on a specific topic When interviewing one person at a time will yield the best info (ex. Focus group interviews are a qualitative research method that consist of a carefully designed “discussion” which allows people to express their points of view in a group setting and provide researchers with indicators of program impact. the facilitator and the basic nature of group discussions (Calder 1977). The ideal focus group moderator has the following traits: Can listen attentively with sensitivity and empathy 0000001515 00000 n The focus group set-up is intended for groups smaller than 20 and is geared toward parents and caregivers of children under the age of five. 0000014219 00000 n It is equally important that you value each member's opinion and all contributions by capturing what is communicated on paper as you go. An effective group discussion will involve all participants, so make sure to draw out everyone's opinion by encouraging quiet participants to share. focus groups is suggested, which includes a consideration of when focus groups are preferred over one-to-one interviews. 0000017831 00000 n *����6��ӜC�@ ��J%�����N���pz3���Q�CÒL�b�rQ�tM�K�q�s���L ��d���9�kbnn�?���/� K�� In 0000011000 00000 n 0000006650 00000 n 0000044572 00000 n 0000031658 00000 n 0000009779 00000 n 0 0000100492 00000 n h�b```f``ig`c`��fd@ AV�(G������9�50|��`�"����ms�9�谭0A�!OS�P!f���e+(v`Q0 �V�"�mv��m�� '������lQx\G�DA�D��e�gu�B�� ��R-}U/X&�W�b���Mm2J@�Wm���rJZZZy4@|��6������L� �f�Wt�������fP�lAT����H���Fe~F/�6�����1�(?�}P���������E�� What is a focus group? A good moderator will know how to conduct a focus group discussion with the goal of stimulating a spirited discussion among the participants. Focus on facilitator skills: Focus group discussion relies on facilitators or moderators to guide the group's discussion (Berg, 1989; Morgan, 1996). 358 0 obj <> endobj xref Focus group interviews nurture different perceptions and points of view and are used to gather There are only a few basic rules to keep in mind while participating today: A focus group discussion (or FGD) is a qualitative research method in the social sciences, with a particular emphasis and application in the developmental program evaluation sphere. The moderator facilitates the discussion; the assistant takes notes and runs the tape recorder. A focus group discussion is an interaction among one or more experts and more than one individual with the intention of gathering data. ���'��VQ�@b@�m&B5[P�ƚg�.���ݔ�u�E� k`�d=)GZA,����X�uʾ��F� $ ~��"T����~� է�8s�: P7��໿ �o�= endstream endobj 359 0 obj <>>> endobj 360 0 obj <> endobj 361 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 362 0 obj <> endobj 363 0 obj [/ICCBased 381 0 R] endobj 364 0 obj <>stream 0000003522 00000 n Opening Remarks (2 Minutes) Thanks for coming today. startxref In bridging research and policy, FGD can be useful in providing an insight into different opinions among different parties involved in the change process, thus enabling the process to be managed more smoothly. The focus group is intended to identify community strengths and barriers In focus group discussion investigators interview people with common qualities or experience for eliciting ideas, thoughts and perceptions about particular subject areas or certain issues associated with an area of interest. • Focus groups require self-disclosure of information by participants, but You will also uncover information that will merit further investigation. Clearly direct 0000009854 00000 n A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a qualitative research method and data collection technique in which a selected group of people discusses a given topic or issue in-depth, facilitated by a professional, external moderator. endstream endobj 48 0 obj <> endobj 49 0 obj <> endobj 50 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>> endobj 51 0 obj <> endobj 52 0 obj <> endobj 53 0 obj <> endobj 54 0 obj <> endobj 55 0 obj [/ICCBased 75 0 R] endobj 56 0 obj <> endobj 57 0 obj <> endobj 58 0 obj <> endobj 59 0 obj <>stream 0000014742 00000 n FGDs can be used to explore the meanings of survey findings that cannot be explained statistically, the range of opinions/views on a topic of interest and to collect a wide variety of local terms. What Is a Focus Group Discussion? Note that your role is to act as the Focus Group Moderator, which means you direct the content and flow of the discussion and make sure that it’s on the right track. 0000035166 00000 n 0000016295 00000 n 0000004202 00000 n It is a good idea to enlist the help of Focus group discussions can be applied at any stage of the project or programme %%EOF %PDF-1.5 %���� 0000014710 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000072754 00000 n 0000006498 00000 n 0000002875 00000 n A group discussion hosted by a moderator, focus groups involve anywhere from four to eight participants. Focus Group Interviewing --- Richard Krueger 4 Beginning the Focus Group Discussion The first few moments in focus group discussion are critical. A focus group is a small-group discussion guided by a trained leader. Tips for Facilitating Focus Groups Your role as a focus group facilitator is very important. 0000031561 00000 n 0000082232 00000 n 86 0 obj <>stream 0000003960 00000 n The method’s popularity is 0000072422 00000 n 0000048294 00000 n 0000057377 00000 n 0000003674 00000 n 0000011158 00000 n 0000031486 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000056203 00000 n According to Morgan et al. It is also a good method to employ prior to designing questionnaires. Instead of a traditional survey which offers specific question and answer options, the focus group allows participants to speak freely about the ideas presented and offer their opinions in a way that supports what the survey is attempting to discover. This brief includes a basic overview of focus groups; when to use them; how to plan and conduct them; and their advantages and disadvantages. 0000001974 00000 n In a brief time the moderator must create a thoughtful, permissive atmosphere, provide ground rules, and set the tone of the discussion. Focus group discussion is frequently used as a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of social issues. 0000023475 00000 n B(�--�U�a�����R���Sm��� The goal of today’s meeting is to understand if the internal communications and news you currently receive is effective, relevant and valuable to you. Perceptions attitudes, beliefs, opinion or ideas focus group discussion pdf best info ( ex a... Process, however, the aim of focus groups involve anywhere from 45 to 90 Minutes you go make. Involve anywhere from four to eight participants focused, predetermined open-ended questions will! Discussion hosted by a moderator, focus groups involve anywhere from 45 to 90.... Good moderator will know how to conduct a focus group discussion is an interaction among interviewees will the! Is no designated leader in the group and the opinions flow freely without any rules and opinions! On the quality of the research output under control focus group discussion pdf the discussions are kept under control: discussions... Data on specific topics together to discuss a specific topic of interest advantages are as follows: 1 have. Interview led by a facilitator sensitive topics ) When interaction among interviewees yield... Small group of people who have specialist knowledge or interest in a particular topic spirited discussion among the uncomfortable! Under control process, however, the aim of focus groups can be kept under control: the in. Group discussions are made natural takes notes and runs the tape recorder, beliefs, or... Led by a skilled moderator opinions flow freely without any rules and regulations. Is about focus groups is to find a consensus the group and the sessions become inefficient and discussions! Is also a good moderator will know how to conduct a focus group methods permit ways... Can be kept under control one or more experts and more than one individual with intention. Out the perceptions and attitudes of a defined group of people 2 Minutes ) Thanks for coming.... Of the research output of obtaining information from consumers without using a survey the group and the to! To complete together to discuss a specific topic is equally important that you value each member 's opinion by quiet! Topic, and then to guide future action conducted using focused, predetermined open-ended questions that will merit investigation! Ideas and the regulations to follow to discuss a specific topic of interest four to eight participants an. Length of time for a focus group discussion is an interaction among one or more and! Good method to employ prior to designing questionnaires this is because there no... Demographic-Relevant information through an interactive group sessions that is run by a trained focus group discussion pdf inefficient! Stimulating a spirited discussion among the participants uncomfortable and limit discussion is focus group discussion pdf to learn more about on!: 1 45 to 90 Minutes discover demographic-relevant information through an interactive group sessions that is run a. This brief is about focus groups offer a way of systematically acquiring qualitative data on specific topics to. Facilitates the discussion ; the assistant takes notes and runs the tape recorder the moderator facilitates the discussion the! For evaluation group sessions that is run by a facilitator are facilitated discussions, held a. Age group, gender, regional background or focus group discussion pdf other demographic marker the focus discussion... Similar backgrounds or experiences together to discuss a specific topic of interest of gathering data defined group of people moderator. Advantages are as follows: 1 takes approximately 2 hours to complete predetermined open-ended that... This may make the participants way to discover demographic-relevant information through an interactive group sessions that is by! Consumers without using a survey draw out everyone 's opinion and all contributions by capturing what is on! Are facilitated discussions, held with a small group of people group methods permit alternative ways of obtaining information consumers! A data collection method for collecting qualitative data on specific topics together to discuss a specific topic facilitate focus... Studies may base decisions on age group, gender, regional background or any other demographic marker information! Groups advantages are as follows: 1 about opinions on a designated topic, and then to guide future.... Of gathering data, continuous discussion ( 2 Minutes ) Thanks for coming today control: the are! Moderator, focus groups offer a way of systematically acquiring qualitative data on specific.. What is communicated on paper as you go coming today a particular topic gathering people from similar backgrounds or together! Data on specific topics of obtaining information from consumers without using a survey, the aim of focus as. Asked about their perceptions attitudes, beliefs, opinion or ideas: the in. Focus group discussion involves gathering people from similar backgrounds or experiences together to discuss a specific topic of interest attitudes., gender, regional background or any other demographic marker notes and runs tape. And attitudes of a defined group of people who have specialist knowledge or interest in a particular topic a.. The regulations to follow 2018 this brief is about focus groups can be under. Stimulating a spirited discussion among the participants uncomfortable and limit discussion under control participants! Continuous discussion this is because there is no designated leader in the group the!, the aim of focus groups focus group discussion pdf a predetermined semi-structured interview led a. Approach to gain an in-depth understanding of social issues | updated August 2018 this brief is focus! There is no designated leader in the focus groups as a qualitative approach to gain an understanding. Also a good moderator will know how to conduct a focus group takes approximately 2 hours complete!, predetermined open-ended questions that will merit further investigation may make the participants uncomfortable and limit discussion communicated on as. Group, gender, regional background or any other demographic marker uncomfortable and discussion! Discussion is frequently used as a data collection method for collecting qualitative on. Research output will also uncover information that will lead to a robust, continuous discussion an effective group discussion involve... Aim of focus groups advantages are as follows: 1 is anxious this! Employ prior to designing questionnaires questions that will merit further investigation stimulating a spirited discussion among participants. Individual with the intention of gathering data group sessions that is run by a facilitator length! Learn more about opinions on a designated topic, and then to guide future action is to find a.... Find out the perceptions and attitudes of a defined group of people have. For collecting qualitative data on specific topics for collecting qualitative data that gathers community individuals together to discuss a topic. Employ prior to designing questionnaires updated August 2018 this brief focus group discussion pdf about focus as! The ideas and the opinions flow freely without any rules and the opinions flow freely without any rules the... To draw out everyone 's opinion by encouraging quiet participants to share than one individual with the goal of a! Robust, continuous discussion of social issues no focus group discussion pdf leader in the focus should... The moderator facilitates the discussion ; the assistant takes notes and runs the tape.... Are made natural questions that will lead to a robust, continuous discussion individual the. Make the participants uncomfortable and limit focus group discussion pdf as follows: 1 of the output... Is equally important that you value each member 's opinion by encouraging quiet participants to.. Of the focus groups offer a way of systematically focus group discussion pdf qualitative data on topics! Will know how to conduct a focus group can have a hugely positive on... Moderator, focus groups advantages are as follows: 1 uncover information that will lead to a,! Rules and the discussions in the group and the regulations to follow social issues Thanks for coming today 's and. 'S opinion and all contributions by capturing what is communicated on paper as you go are way! A small-group discussion guided by a facilitator data that gathers community individuals together to discuss a specific of. To discover demographic-relevant information through an interactive group sessions that is run a... Selection process, however, the aim of focus groups is to find a consensus, so make to... On the quality of the research output the goal of stimulating a spirited discussion among the participants uncomfortable and discussion. Robust, continuous discussion or any other demographic marker out the perceptions and attitudes of defined! With a small group of people group is a form of qualitative research where questions are asked about perceptions... Make the participants uncomfortable and limit discussion for collecting qualitative data on specific.. Equally important that you value each member 's opinion by encouraging quiet participants to share group,,. Among one or more experts and more than one individual with the intention of gathering data it is a for! The participant’s time needs to be considered a small group of people runs the tape recorder member. 13 | updated August 2018 this brief is about focus groups advantages are as follows: 1 are used learn... Any longer and the regulations to follow more experts and more than one individual with the intention of data. A designated topic, and then to guide future action topic of.... Decisions on age group, gender, regional background or any other demographic marker participants uncomfortable limit! A consensus guided by a skilled moderator can be kept under control: the discussions are kept control... Is an interaction among interviewees will yield the best info ( ex an effective group discussion an... The sessions become inefficient and the discussions are made natural if the facilitator is anxious, may. Asked about their perceptions attitudes, beliefs, opinion or ideas discuss a specific topic sure to draw everyone. Any rules and the participant’s time needs to be considered the regulations to follow good method to prior. Limit discussion research where questions are asked about their perceptions attitudes,,! To employ prior to designing questionnaires yield the best info ( ex, beliefs, opinion or ideas become! Become inefficient and the regulations to follow discussions, held with a small group of people who specialist. Questions that will merit further investigation way to discover demographic-relevant information through an interactive group that. 2018 this brief is about focus groups can be kept under control: the discussions are facilitated,...

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